How Solar PV modules are made?

Thursday, 16 June, 2016

To make a Solar PV Module, solar cells are joined physically and electrically.

Components of Solar PV Module:

  • Glass
  • Encapsulant
  • Module frame
  • Interconnectors

Steps for fabrication of Solar PV Modules:

  • Cell sorting
  • Contact Soldering
  • Series interconnection of cells
  • Preparing lamination assembly
  • Laminate curing and polymerization
  • Module framing & external connections
  • Module I-V characterization

The first step is of sorting the solar cells (solar cells are tested and cells from same group are sorted). After sorting of cells, metal contacts are soldered in the form of metal strips, on the front side of the cells. The process of making metal contacts is known as tabbing. After this, cells are connected in series, this process is called stringing. The above mentioned process can be done both manually and by automated technology. After stringing, stack of connected cells, glass, laminates and tedlar is prepared. After this process, the stack is kept in a machine called laminator. This process is called lamination. After the process of lamination, curing is done, where module is heated. During curing process, the polymerization of EVA occurs (formation of crosslink of chemical bonds). This process of polymerization makes the EVA sheet compact and provides strength and durability for long term. After this process modules are farmed using aluminum frames. A plastic box containing electrical points for external electrical connection is added at the rear side of module which is called junction box. This junction box also contains bypass diodes. At the end, modules are characterized for their IV curve and power output.